In this paper, we discuss the Neolithic transition to farming in Northern Adriatic, lactose tolerance, dairying and lipid biomarkers on pottery. While archaeological and biochemical data suggest that dairying was adopted in the Neolithic in Europe, archaeogenetic data show the absence of the allelic variant –13910*T and zero persistence in Neolithic populations in Europe. The Mala Triglavca case study shows that the Early Neolithic economy in the Caput Adriae region was mixed. It consisted of milk and processed milk, meat animal products, freshwater fish and various plants. The Vlaška group herders managed a broader spectrum of resources than exclusively ovicaprids, and were able to produce a wide range of low-lactose, storable products by fermenting milk.
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