Neolithic transition to farming in northern Adriatic. Lactose tolerance, dairying and lipid biomarkers on pottery

Mihael Budja
In this paper, we discuss the Neolithic transition to farming in Northern Adriatic, lactose tolerance, dairying and lipid biomarkers on pottery. While archaeological and biochemical data suggest that dairying was adopted in the Neolithic in Europe, archaeogenetic data show the absence of the allelic variant –13910*T and zero persistence in Neolithic populations in Europe. The Mala Triglavca case study shows that the Early Neolithic economy in the Caput Adriae region was mixed. It consisted of milk and processed milk, meat animal products, freshwater fish and various plants. The Vlaška group herders managed a broader spectrum of resources than exclusively ovicaprids, and were able to produce a wide range of low-lactose, storable products by fermenting milk.

A contrinution to the research strategy of the Neolithic on the Adriatic

Brunislav Marijanović
The article deals with the level of understanding of settlement wholes in the Neolithic in the eastern Adriatic region. It offers a comparison of the results of earlier and recent research as well as analysis of modest understanding of settlement aspects from the earlier excavations. The author concludes that the main reason for such situation can be found in the research strategy with primary orientation to the vertical dimension and small research areas indicating that it is necessary to change research strategies and orient to horizontal dimension of a site.

A contribution to understanding metallurgic activities of the Liburnians

Martina Čelhar, Dario Vujević
Despite abundance of autochthonous metal forms we know very little about the process of production of metal objects in the Liburnians. Metallurgic centres, workshops and tools are unknown for the most part. Only scarce examples of moulds stand as indicators of production. Their existence opens up discussion about the technology of production, skills and achievements of the Liburnian producers.

Workshop stamps on Italic terra sigillata from Burnum

Igor Borzić
Besides large architectural complexes (the camp principium/municipium forum, the amphitheatre and the exercise campus), archaeological excavations, both earlier ones and those conducted after 2003 by the Town Museum in Drniš and the Department of Archaeology of the University of Zadar, that have taken place in the area of the Roman military camp/municipium of Burnum (Ivoševci near Kistanje) have revealed an extraordinarily large quantity of small archaeological artefacts. Among those from the early stages of life at Burnum in the first half of the first century, there is a series of approximately eighty stamps on fine tableware, which confirms the existence of imports from the Italic area. An analysis of these, together with observations on the overall holdings of the pottery finds, enables detailed insights regarding spatial and chronological supply sources, while a comparison with similar finds from civilian and military sites throws light on the position of Roman Dalmatia on regional trade routes.

A new infundibulum at the cemetery of ancient Iader

Ivo Fadić
The zone where the Roman cemetery of Iader extended was confirmed in the recent rescue excavations in Ivan Zadranin Street in Zadar. In the excavations 35 Roman burials were discovered. The great majority of the discovered graves consist of cremation graves with extremely rich finds and grave goods. One of them was a cremation grave – grave 34 – containing a glass funnel or infundibulum. Including this new find of a funnel, so far 7 completely preserved glass funnels have been discovered in Zadar. Along with two funnels without a specific context for the finds, all of the others were uncovered in a grave context of cremation burials during archaeological excavations at the Roman cemetery of Iader. Glass funnels are a quite specific and rare form of freeblown glass vessels, which serve for transferring but not storing various liquids. Perhaps the finds of numerous glass funnels in this region, which are presumed to be of eastern Mediterranean production, were a result of activities in processing aromatic and medicinal plants. Such a hypothesis would certainly be supported by the numerous finds of other glass forms, but also the existence of one or more local glass workshops. Thus the need for glass products in general, and hence also for funnels, considering that glass is very neutral in terms of the contents stored in it, would be based in activities producing various pharmaceutical preparations. Judging from the glass funnels, such activities took place in the second half of the 1st century AD.

Glass aryballoi from Jader

Berislav Štefanac
The subject of this paper is glass containers, which in the Early Imperial period represented an important toiletry item. Aryballoi were containers for storing various cosmetic preparations for personal grooming. In Zadar, 21 specimens have been recorded, which were all unearthed in 1st- and 2nd-century tomb groups at the Iadertinian necropolis. On the basis of their morphological significance and chronological context, the aryballoi have been divided into 5 groups. A more detailed study has demonstrated that most of the specimens from the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century were artefacts from eastern Mediterranean workshops. An exception is the aryballos with a ribbed decoration, which bears the characteristics of a western workshop circle from the second half of the 1st century. The diversity and luxury of the specimens in this segment of delicate material artefacts also make antique Zadar one of the most significant sites for such finds in the Mediterranean.

The college of sevir Iulialis and the beginnings of the imperial cult in Zadar (Iader) in the Roman period

Kornelija A. Giunio
Among the honorifics used in the municipal sphere, those borne by college members in charge of maintaining and carrying out the duties of the imperial cult and erecting monuments pro salute et reditu imperatoris are worthy of attention. These well known colleges consisted of six members (VI viri) and were in charge of the official imperial cult. The oldest of them was the college of sevir Iulialis, recorded on a monument in Zadar (VI vir Iulialis), which in all probability preceded the later colleges associated with the cult of deified emperors. The existence of the college in Zadar is confirmed by an inscription unearthed in the course of the 1949 archaeological campaign at the Zadar Forum. The monument was erected to the seven-year-old Lucius Tettius Epidianus by his father Lucius Tettius Sperches VI vir Iulialis. The Greek cognomen and the performance of the office of sevirate define him as a freedman from the Italic Tettius family. The location for erecting a monument to his deceased seven-year-old son was allocated to Sperches by a decurion’s decree, suggesting the great personal respect which he had gained. This is the first occurrence of the title VI vir Iulialis in epigraphy. On this occasion, I shall try to analyse and explain my understandingof the appearance of this college in Iader.

Coin circulation in Zadar in the late Roman period

Jakov Vučić
The article analyzes a catalogue of 223 coins kept in the Classical Department of the Archaeological Museum in Zadar, for which it is known or presumed that they came from the area of Roman Zadar (Iader). On the basis of a section of these coins, whose provenience could be assumed with greater certainty and finds known from earlier publications, a sample was formed of 154 coins that served for the analysis of the intensity of coin circulation in the period between 294 and 455 AD in Zadar. The comparison of the curves of the intensity of the influx of coinage in Zadar with the sample covering the area of northern Dalmatia showed that Zadar deviated from the typical situation in northern Dalmatia. The most apparent differences refer to the maximal values of the circulation index, which for the Zadar sample shows a pattern of coins minted at intervals in 348-388, while the samples from northern Dalmatia show a pattern of coins minted at intervals in 330-341. After more detailed analysis, it is concluded that the circulation index of coins minted to 378 in both samples was similarly structured, while those minted later exhibit a considerable deviation. This was the year when the famous battle of Hadrianopolis took place.

Grave 75 at the Pakoštane-Crkvina site

Karla Gusar, Dario Vujević

In the course of archaeological excavations at the Pakoštane-Crkvina site from 2006 to 2013, the remnants of the Church of St. Mary, which was part of the medieval settlement of Zablaće, were unearthed. Auxiliary rooms and a medieval cemetery were uncovered beside the church. However, the features of grave 75 make it stand out. It is a constructed tomb with Romanesque style characteristics. The construction of this unusual grave can be dated to the 12th century. It can be compared to the tomb of the Abbess Vekenega in the Benedictine monastery of St. Mary in Zadar. Partial reconstruction is also possible based on the preserved parts. Apart from its rich architecture, grave 75 should also be singled out for the finds uncovered within it. These include jewellery, parts of attire and coins. Grave 75 and the other unearthed graves and finds indicate the site’s importance in the period between the 12th and 16th century.

 

Activities of the Chair in prehistoric archaeology of the Department of Archaeology, University of Zadar

Brunislav Marijanović
A concise overview of the Chair in Prehistoric Archaeology of the former Faculty of Philosophy in Zadar, present-day University of Zadar, is given. Emphasis is placed on main achievements of excavations, with brief overview of each excavated site.

Classical archaeology at the University of Zadar

Željko Miletić
A concise overview of the Chair in Classical Archaeology is given with emphasis on main achievements of excavations, scientific studies and lectures on Greek and Roman periods at the University of Zadar. Contribution of four eminent scholars was presented briefly: Mate Suić, Branimir Gabričević, Julijan Medini and Nenad Cambi. Highlights of recent activities at the Chair and direction of future development were delineated.

Medieval and postmedieval archaeology in teaching and research activities of the Department of archaeology of the University of Zadar

Tomislav Fabijanić
The article briefly presents role of medieval archaeology in the study of archaeology in Zadar. Present and past courses of the study are mentioned. Most important research activities of the professors from the Chair in Medieval and Postmedieval Archaeology are described in brief.