Relationship between the sea surface and surface air temperature

a case of the Island of Hvar (Adriatic Sea, Croatia)

Ognjen Bonacci, Tanja Roje-Bonacci, Duje Bonacci
Relationship of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Surface Air Temperature (SAT) measured at the small island of Hvar (Adriatic Sea) are examined on annual and monthly time scales using data for a period of 55 years (1964-2018). The following three SST and SAT indices were analysed: (1) absolute minimum; (2) mean; (3) absolute maximum. The results highlighted a statistically significant increasing trend for all three SST analysed annual indices. In the case of SAT absolute minimum increasing trend is not statistically significant. For the other two indices the trends are statistically significant at the level, p<0.01. Monthly analysis for SST indices almost in all months (except October) have statistically significant increasing trends. In the case of SAT, a statistically significant increasing trend for all analysed indices occurred in summer (July and August). All results point out that the analysed region, especially small Adriatic islands are endangered of climate change, i.e. global warming during the summertime. Using the RAPS method on the minimum annual SST, a statistically significant shift upward was detected in 1988. Ten years later, in 1998, a statistically significant shift upward was detected on the mean and maximum SST and SAT indices. In the case of SAT minimum annual values, a statistically significant shift downward is detected, starting in 1979. In the analysed case of the Island of Hvar, the warming of SST indices is higher than the warming of SAT indices and occur during the whole year (except in October).


Approaches to landscape evaluation

questioning examining landscape vulnerability and sensitivity of the Island of Rab

Lara Bogovac, Sonja Butula, Goran Andlar, Dora Tomić Reljić

The incentive for this research has come from a wide range of methods for landscape quality evaluation. The purpose was to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used approaches to landscape evaluation. In the selected research area, the Island of Rab, 15 landscape character areas were identified and three approaches for evaluation of landscape qualities were determined; (1) one based exclusively on the evaluation of vulnerability of landscape qualities, and two based on landscape sensitivity assessment: (2) the overlap of landscape character areas with the combined landscape quality vulnerability model and (3) the direct evaluation of landscape character areas from the natural, cultural-historical, and visual-experiential perspective. The aforementioned approaches were compared with one another in order to identify similarities and differences between the individual approaches, as well as to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. Theresults have shown that the adequacy of an approach depends on the selection of a homogeneous spatial unit; the appropriate approach for the evaluation criteria selection may affect the objectivity of the method; and the highest landscape qualities were determined in the same areas regardless of the approach used.


Application of the DPSIR framework to assess environmental issues with an emphasis on waste management driven by stationary tourism in Adriatic Croatia

Mira Zovko, Sara Melkić, Izidora Marković Vukadin
The complexity of the tourism sector relies on a variety of economic and social activities. Consequently, those are drivers that result in a variety of pressures and impacts on the environment. In order to track the progress towards sustainable tourism management, continuous data monitoring and a comprehensive assessment framework, such as the DPSIR - Driver-Pressure-State-Impact- Response, are a fundamental prerequisite. Among the environmental challenges within the DPSIR framework, municipal waste generated by the Croatian tourist industry is identified as one of the major environmental issues. In this research, evidence-based analysis using selected indicators within DPSIR framework was carried out with the emphasis on sustainable waste management. This holistic approach ensures a sound evaluation and adequate measures as a social response to address the main environmental issues regarding tourism intensity in the long term. In addition, the authors explored possible directions of more sustainable waste management in tourism for the Adriatic region of Croatia, considering the examples of the good practices implemented on the Island of Krk. Research and evaluation of selected indicators confirmed that tourism seasonality has an impact on the environment and revealed that high tourism intensity has a direct impact on the waste management infrastructure that is mostly established for a limited number of residents. Therefore, the authors suggest moderate tourism intensity as the most favourable option, resulting in a more sustainable waste management options, which produces less environmental pressure on the waste management infrastructure and the environment. Finally, through the research a new indicator was created, which explores sustainability of municipal waste management.


New trends in camping tourism – glamping and family campsites

Gordana Eremić
The paper presents an overview of new trends in camping tourism in Croatia and the world, with an emphasis on glamping and family camps. After the historical review of the development of camping and glamping tourism, there is an overview of the situation in Croatian camping tourism. The analysis of the existing scientific and professional literature presents an overview of previous research on camping and glamping tourism and the problems that camping tourism researchers face. In the final part of the paper, the emphasis is on the predictions of scientists about the future of camping tourism. The methods used throughout the work are: analysis and synthesis method, statistical method, and compilation method. Camping tourism is experiencing significant changes today, due to the maturity of the Mediterranean offer, such as the emergence of glamping as a luxurious and more expensive form. Croatian camping tourism, despite the significant share of campsites in the overall structure of accommodation capacities, notes a lack of research and the authors dealing with new trends in camping tourism and families, but also low utilization by resident tourists. At the same time, the County of Istria is registering an increase in the number of campers as well as in the demand for glamping.