Differences in Exercise Motives between Boys and Girls of Preschool Age

Jelena Alić

Motivation (lat. “Movere” = to move) can be defined as everything that moves us towards a goal, everything that conditions a directed action, and as a psychological process of satisfying needs (Sindik, 2009). Within kinesiological activities, there are two types of exercise motivation: internal and external motivation. Internal motivation refers to behaviour that is triggered by certain internal urges and rewards and arises from an individual’s need because it makes him satisfied as opposed to external motivation which involves behaviour aimed at achieving a certain reward or avoiding punishment (Coon, 2010). The main aim of the research was to determine the exercise motivational structure of preschool children and also to determine if gender differences exist among preschool children in exercise motivation. The sample included 74 preschool children, males and females, between 5 and 7 years of age (N=74, Nf =38, Nm=36). Individual differences in exercise motivation of preschool children have been assessed by the adapted version of Exercise motivation inventory – EMI 2 (Vlašić et al., 2002). The basic descriptive indicators were calculated, and the Mann- Whitney U test was applied to test gender differences in exercise motivation. The obtained results of the research indicate that the dominant motive that encourages children to exercise is their health (AS = 4.47), followed by enjoyment (AS = 4.28) and socializing with friends (AS = 4.27). This indicates that children are more motivated by internal urges than external ones, which is also a desirable motivational pattern. In addition, statistically significant differences in the exercise motives were found with regard to the gender of the respondents. Boys are, to a greater extent than girls, motivated for physical activity due to the improvement of physical appearance (p = 0.004) and due to the results/victories (p = 0.017) achieved in the context of the implementation of kinesiological activities. This knowledge can be used in the organization ofphysical activities in order to increase children’s motivation and keep the child in a particular sport or physical activity.


Interest of Primary School Students in Music

Vesna Ružić, Ines Cvitković Kalanjoš

Teaching music, which is carried out in primary school education through the subject Music Culture plays a major role and forms students’ musical competences as part of the cultural development of students. Listening is the only activity in music that includes an aesthetic level, so the level of aesthetic education depends on the amount of time devoted to this activity. The interest of children in music has the greatest influence on the cultural environment, but the influence of the family is even greater, no matter how accessible listening to music is with mass media. Attitude towards music is mostly inherited from parents. This paper discusses the interest of primary school students for music and what type of music they are opting for. The research was carried out by survey involving pupils from 1st to 4th grade in two primary schools in the area of Koprivnica-Križevci County. The aim and task of the research was to determine possible problems both in teaching Music Culture and the musical life of students and try to find a solution to them, so that they would be more interesting and useful to the students and to awaken students’ interest. A descriptive method was used during the study and as the subject of the survey research. We assumed that the interest of primary school students is high and that their interest is moving in the direction of folk and turbo folkmusic. A survey conducted in the two schools of Koprivnica-Križevci County showed that the majority of students of these schools have a positive approach to music, but also observed differences between the school in urban and the school in the rural area. 


Adapting the Contents of the required readings for Elementary School Students with Disabilities

Valerija Boras

A successful integration of students with disabilities into family, school, community, workplace and society depends on their fundamental educational achievements, and in particular on the development of their reading literacy. One of the fundamental components for the development of reading literacy is the school’s required reading. Teaching a student how to read is not the sole importance of a required reading; it is supposed to introduce them to the literary world, stimulate their imagination, logical and moral reasoning, as well as the contemplation of life itself. The availability of the required readings for students with disabilities in the Republic of Croatia is extremely limited, and often depends on the teacher’s creativity and initiative. This paper explores the depiction of required readings that are available on the Croatian market and adapted for elementary school students with disabilities.
Likewise, the paper introduces recommendations for the adaptation of the required readings’ content for students with intellectual disabilities and disabilities pertaining to language, speech, voice and communication.


Preschool Teachers’ Perception of parental manipulation affecting Children and Teachers during and after Divorce

Martina Hrgović

The manipulation of children during and after parents’ divorce involves a range of behaviours in which one parent seeks to disrupt the child’s relationship with the other parent. Such behaviours make it difficult for the child to adjust to divorce and can leave long-term negative effects on the child’s development and the relationship with their parents. The research on this behaviour is still scarce, especially outside the family context. Namely, individuals who work in educational institutions and who interact with children on a daily basis and care for their well-being should be able to recognize such behaviours by parents so that they can act in children’s best interests. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which preschool teachers have experience with parental behaviours that can be characterized as parental manipulation during and after divorce, as well as the extent to which such behaviours are recognized, encountered and undertaken, and what difficulties can be observed in children whose parents are prone to such behaviours. As part of this research, we constructed and tested a scale of parental manipulative behaviours towards children and preschool teachers. The research included 166 preschool teachers, and the results showed that most preschool teachers met with the children whose parents were engaged in the divorce process and that they considered themselves educated enough to recognize critical parental and child behaviours, despite not having the opportunity to be informed, which ultimately turned out to be a disadvantage. It appears that the most common manipulative behaviours encountered in their work are consistent with the expectations found in literature. Furthermore, the results confirmed the assumed structure of the parental manipulative behaviour scale.


Teachers’ Attitudes towards Roma Students Inclusion

Sanja Nuhanović

Education of Roma students is matter of discusions, questioning and reaserach for a long period of time. The scope of this paper is the research on teachers’ attitudes in class teaching on educational inclusion of Roma students. The research participants are teachers from 20 Croatian  counties (N=293) who voluntarily filled in the survey especially designed for this research and which statements refer to teachers’ perception of Roma population, educational inclusion of Roma students and the role of teachers and Roma parents in educating Roma children. The research results indicate slightly positive teachers’ attitudes towards the education inclusion of Roma children. The respondents emphasize that the role and the responsibility of Roma parents in education of their own children is significant, however, the least positive attitudes concern the greater teachers’ engagement in the process of education of Roma students. Such results are in line with previous research and confirm how teachers are not aware of the importance of their role in education of vulnerable groups  in general, in this case Roma students. There are no significant differences in teachers’ attitudes when it comes to age, qualification, years of service and previously created contact between the examinee and Roma students.